• Authors must present their manuscripts in a concise, accurate, and complete form including an objective discussion of the significance of the research
  • Authors must provide correct citation and reference in their submitted manuscript as a form of recognition to published works related to their work. All sources must be cited and when necessary, permission must be sought by the author in accordance with copyright laws when significant amount of other people’s materials are used
  • Authors are to avoid undue fragmentation of research into multiple manuscripts for publication. Authors are not to engage in redundant publication where two papers share the same hypotheses, data, discussion points, or conclusions
  • It is unethical to submit a journal without disclosing the fact that a related article has already been submitted. Authors therefore should inform the editor of related manuscripts under consideration for publication in another journal
  • Authors are to submit a manuscript to only one journal at a time. It is unethical to submit an article describing essentially the same research to more than one journal
  • Authors must duly acknowledge, but not identify as authors, all who have contributed to the work. Those who contributed significantly in the concept, design, acquisition of data, and execution or interpretation of the research could be listed as co-authors. Authorship credit should be based on authors fulfilling three criteria:
  1. Substantial contribution to conception and design, execution, or analysis and interpretation of data;
  2. Drafting the article or revising it critically;
  3. Reading and approving of the final version.
  • In some cases the lead author should submit a statement specifying the contributions of each co-author
  • Before submitting the manuscript, the corresponding author must see to it that those listed as co-authors have agreed to its submission for publication. Any change in authorship after the submission of the manuscript must be approved by all the authors and justified to the editor
  • The author must inform the editor of any conflict of interest at the time of manuscript submission. The sources of funding of the research submitted must also be clearly stated. Again the author is obligated to disclose to the editor and to readers any potential and relevant competing financial or other interest of all the authors
  • Authors are not to engage in plagiarism. Misappropriation of another person’s intellectual property — copying sentences verbatim including the reuse of author’s own previously published work without attribution, called self-plagiarism, must be avoided. Credit must be given to all whose works were referred to in the production of the manuscript
  • Authors are to put together data as a true reflection of findings devoid of scientific dishonesty, fraud, fictitious or manipulated data, plagiarized material, reference omission, false priority statement, hidden or multiple publication of the same data and incorrect authorship. They are not to go against any copyright laws. They are also supposed to seek permission from relevant publishers when reproducing figures or schemes from previous publications