IJOHMN (International Journal Online of Humanities) http://ijohmn.com/index.php/ijohmn <p>International Journal Online of Humanities (IJOHMN) is bi-monthly, open access, peer-reviewed ( referred ) and indexed journal. published by Smart Moves publications. The main objective of IJOHMN is to provide an online platform for the researchers. The journal had been granted &nbsp;ISSN No <a href="http://nsl.niscair.res.in/ISSNPROCESS/issnassignedinfo.jsp" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2395-5155</a>&nbsp;in the year 2014. IJOHMN&nbsp;first issue was published in December 2014 since then it is continuously publishing quality research papers. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Aims and&nbsp;Scope&nbsp;for publication:</strong></p> <p>The primary objective of IJOHMN is to offer an online open-access platform for international researchers.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>IJOHMN aims to publish research papers in theoretical and thematic approaches to English Language, Literature, Linguistics, ELS and English Language Teaching.</p> <p><strong>PORTICO</strong></p> <p>IJOHMN is preserving open access e-journals with Portico, ensuring that their content will be secure and available into the future. Portico functions as a “dark archive”. PORTICO&nbsp;provides a permanent archive of electronic journals.</p> <h3 align="left"><strong>DOI Crossref</strong></h3> <p><a href="https://search.crossref.org/?q=ijellh" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SMART MOVES JOURNAL IJELLH&nbsp;</a>is a member of the&nbsp;DOI&nbsp;Crossref, USA. Crossref (formerly styled CrossRef) is an official Digital Object Identifier (DOI) Registration Agency of the International DOI Foundation. It is run by the Publishers International Linking Association Inc. (PILA) and was launched in early 2000 as a cooperative effort among publishers to enable persistent cross-publisher citation linking in online academic journals.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> SMART MOVES en-US IJOHMN (International Journal Online of Humanities) 2395-5155 <div class="fusion-page-title-bar fusion-page-title-bar-none fusion-page-title-bar-left"> <div class="fusion-page-title-row"> <div class="fusion-page-title-wrapper"> <div class="fusion-page-title-captions"> <p align="justify">International Journal Online of Humanities (IJOHMN) follows the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) License. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition of open access publication.</p> <p align="justify">The Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) License allows users to copy, distribute and transmit an article, adapt the article and make commercial use of the article. The CC BY 4.0) license permits commercial and non-commercial re-use of an open-access article, as long as the author is properly attributed.</p> <div id="deed-conditions" class="row"> <h3>Under the following terms:</h3> <ul class="license-properties col-md-offset-2 col-md-8" dir="ltr"> <li class="license by"> <p><strong>Attribution</strong> — You must give <a id="appropriate_credit_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/#" data-original-title="">appropriate credit</a>, provide a link to the license, and <a id="indicate_changes_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/#" data-original-title="">indicate if changes were made</a>. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.<span id="by-more-container"></span></p> </li> <li class="license nc"> <p><strong>NonCommercial</strong> — You may not use the material for <a id="commercial_purposes_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/#" data-original-title="">commercial purposes</a>.<span id="nc-more-container"></span></p> </li> <li class="license nd"> <p><strong>NoDerivatives</strong> — If you <a id="some_kinds_of_mods_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/#" data-original-title="">remix, transform, or build upon</a> the material, you may not distribute the modified material.<span id="nd-more-container"></span></p> </li> </ul> </div> <div class="row"> <ul id="deed-conditions-no-icons" class="col-md-offset-2 col-md-8"> <li class="license"><strong>No additional restrictions</strong> — You may not apply legal terms or <a id="technological_measures_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/#" data-original-title="">technological measures</a> that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.</li> </ul> </div> <h1 class="entry-title" data-fontsize="18" data-lineheight="25">&nbsp;</h1> </div> </div> </div> </div> Decolonising Subalternity through Effective History in Ishmael Reed’s Yellow Back Radio Broke-Down and Sonallah Ibrahim’s Zaat http://ijohmn.com/index.php/ijohmn/article/view/160 <p>In Section One of <em>Manifesto of the Communist Party</em>, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, formulating a comprehensive theory of history, contend:</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles. Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild master and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another, carried on an uninterrupted, now hidden, now open fight. (91)</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Marx and Engels believe that in any society, history marks a conflict between two struggling opposites; noting that the one in the privileged position oppresses the one who is not. Regretfully, that type of struggle never subsides; it seems to be perpetual as it is, sometimes, ‘open’ and, other times, hidden. The same is applied to colonised and ex-colonised countries. However, theirs is not a 'history of class struggles' but of a Master-Subaltern struggle. In this struggle, resisting subalternity is achieved through legitimating the existence of the Subalterns, a process that is realised by urging the colonisers or the colonisers' surrogates to recognise the subalterns' Being, which necessitates admitting not only the existence of the Subalterns, but also being conscious of them as individuals<sup>1</sup>. This is brought about by occupying a powerful position that is attained through heightening the Subaltern's sense of identity in the course of history. The result is, the paper argues, an active process of decolonising the Self, especially when an 'effective history' comes into existence to pave the way for the Subaltern to achieve self-realisation; as revealed in the Foucauldian thought and, also, the Hegelian and Heideggerian philosophy. The paper aims at analysing the empowerment process of the Subaltern in both Ishmael Reed's <em>Yellow Back Radio Broke-Down</em> (1969) and Sonallah Ibrahim's<em> Zaat</em> (1992) by comparing and contrasting different types of Subalterns as well as colonisers and colonisers' surrogates. The paper also sets out to explore the Subaltern's means of self-projection to acquire a position of power based upon history so as to examine the discourse of history in both African American and&nbsp; Egyptian postcolonial literature.</p> Dr. Naeema Abdelgawad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-02-13 2020-02-13 6 1 57 57 10.24113/ijohmn.v6i1.160 Factors Militating Against the Effective Teaching and Learning of Krio at the Junior Secondary School Level: http://ijohmn.com/index.php/ijohmn/article/view/161 <p>This study was aimed at investigating factors militating against the effective teaching and learning of Krio at the Junior Secondary School (JSS) Level in a sample of JSS pupils in selected schools in the Western Area of Freetown, Sierra Leone.</p> <p>Questionnaires were administered to both teachers of Krio and pupils offering the subject at the targeted level. These, alongside observation and focus group discussions, were used to determine the level of training and experience of the teachers; facilities which support the teaching and learning of Krio; attitudes of teachers, pupils and other stakeholders towards the teaching and learning of Krio; mode and frequency of assessment; provision of institutional support; and, the success rate of pupils at the Basic Educational Certificate Exams (BECE) in the selected schools.</p> <p>Three schools were targeted. In each of these schools, questionnaires were administered to 50 pupils, giving a total of 150 respondents.&nbsp;</p> <p>A total of eleven teachers were sampled. The study revealed that:</p> <ul> <li>The teachers of Krio in the selected schools were and trained and qualified. However, none of them studied krio as a major and only about one third read it as a minor.</li> <li>Teaching and learning materials are inadequate, and time allocated to the teaching of krio is insufficient.</li> <li>Attitude is a major factor which militates against the teaching and learning of krio in the selected schools.</li> <li>Written assignments, tests and exams are the main assessment tools.</li> <li>Institutional support (in-service trainings/workshops/seminars) plays a great role in building teachers’ capacity to teach the subject as all the teachers sampled did not study krio as a major subject.</li> <li>BECE results (krio -2010 and 2011) indicate that only a small percentage of the pupils at JSSIII opted for krio</li> </ul> Harriet Yeanoh Jones Dr. Saidu Challay Peter Mboh Muffuh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-02-13 2020-02-13 6 1 38 38 10.24113/ijohmn.v6i1.161 Humanly Gods or Godly Humans: Representation and Anthropomorphism of Mythical Characters in Amish Tripathi’s Shiva Trilogy http://ijohmn.com/index.php/ijohmn/article/view/162 <p>This paper attempts to analyse the representation of mythical characters in the three novels by Amish Tripathi, namely <em>The immortals of Meluha, The secret of the Nagas </em>and <em>The oath of the Vayuputras. </em>The protagonist is a human being, Shiva, whose bildungsroman through the trilogy transforms him into a God, but without actually changing any of his physical attributes. Thus, at the level of anthropomorphism, this method of representation sheds light on the humane aspect of the divinity. From a perspective of feminist understanding of disability, the character of Kali would be studied, as an initial outcast to an important character in the last two books. Thus, this paper would conclude that Tripathi attempts at a vision of inclusivity, by his clever techniques of the representation of the disabled and the divine alike.</p> Aritra Basu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-02-13 2020-02-13 6 1 9 9 10.24113/ijohmn.v6i1.162 July’s People: A Reversed Anticipation and Prediction of the Future Black Domination http://ijohmn.com/index.php/ijohmn/article/view/163 <p>Nadine Gordimer’s <em>July’s People, </em>is a good example of a contemporary novel that reverses the so-called naturel division between black and white people. As a matter of fact, black nation holds power and protection, which they lacked in time of the Apartheid system because it was on the hands of their controversialists -white people. This novel seems to be a prophecy of the decline of this arbitrary system that meant the declined of white people’s privileged life that went from the sub-urban to a non‑suburban life. From Derrida’s theory of deconstruction, the reality of white people becomes upside down due to their color, origins and their presence in Africa. Therefore, they lost their position, their wealth, and at worse their power.</p> Hassiba Alloune ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-13 2020-02-13 6 1 10 10 10.24113/ijohmn.v6i1.163 The Intoxication of Power in George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty Four (1949) and Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World (1932) http://ijohmn.com/index.php/ijohmn/article/view/165 <p>George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty Four (1949)and Aldous Huxley’s Brave New&nbsp;World&nbsp;(1932) stand as two powerful works of art that emanated from a mere disorder and fragmentation. To put it differently, this work of art emanated from a world that underwent an extremely rigorous political transformations and cultural seismology. This is a world that has witnessed an overwhelming dislocation. All those upheavals brought into being a new life, that is to say, a reshuffled life .A new life brings forwards a new art. This research, accordingly, attempts to put all its focus on two modernist visionary works of art that have enhanced a completely new system of thought and perceived the past, the present, and even the future with an entirely new consciousness. In the world of Nineteen Eighty Four and Brave New World, power seems to get beyond of what is supposedly politically legitimate. This power has paved the way for the emergence of a totalitarian system; I would rather call it a totalitarian virus. This system has emerged with the ultimate purpose of deadening the spirit of individualism, rendering the classes nothing but “docile masses”. I will be accordingly analysing how power becomes intoxicating. In other words, I will attempt to give a keen picture of how power becomes no longer over things, but rather over men according to Nietzsche’s philosophical perception of “The Will to Power”.</p> Hadjer Khatir ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-02-04 2020-02-04 6 1 11 11 10.24113/ijohmn.v6i1.165 Investigating Factors Affecting the Use of Spoken and Written English in School http://ijohmn.com/index.php/ijohmn/article/view/166 <p>This paper is from a research work and it investigated factors affecting the effective use of oral and written English in senior secondary school.&nbsp; The study revealed that some teachers who teach Oral English are not committed teachers even though they have the requisite qualifications in English Language.&nbsp; The study further revealed that a large percentage of teachers of English Language teach the subject only few weeks before WASSCE using the wrong methodology.&nbsp; Also, the appropriate materials such as textbooks are not easily available or accessible: workshops and tutorials are not usually conducted for teachers; teachers are not motivated and thus pupils lack interest in the subject.</p> Samuel Tamba ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-02-13 2020-02-13 6 1 14 14 10.24113/ijohmn.v6i1.166