IJOHMN (International Journal Online of Humanities) http://ijohmn.com/index.php/ijohmn <p>International Journal Online of Humanities (IJOHMN) is a bi-monthly, open access, peer-reviewed ( referred ) and indexed journal. published by Smart Moves publications. The main objective of IJOHMN is to provide an online platform for the researchers. The journal had been granted &nbsp;ISSN No <a href="http://nsl.niscair.res.in/ISSNPROCESS/issnassignedinfo.jsp" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2395-5155</a>&nbsp;in the year 2014. IJOHMN&nbsp;first issue was published in December 2014 since then it is continuously publishing quality research papers in the&nbsp;field of humanities. &nbsp;</p> <p>The primary objective of IJOHMN is to offer an intellectual platform for national and international scholars. IJOHMN aims to encourage interdisciplinary studies in humanities.</p> <p>The journal publishes research papers in the fields of humanities such as Sociology, Psychology, Communication studies, &nbsp;linguistics, literature etc.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> SMART MOVES en-US IJOHMN (International Journal Online of Humanities) 2395-5155 <div class="fusion-page-title-bar fusion-page-title-bar-none fusion-page-title-bar-left"> <div class="fusion-page-title-row"> <div class="fusion-page-title-wrapper"> <div class="fusion-page-title-captions"> <h1 class="entry-title" data-fontsize="18" data-lineheight="25">Publication Policy</h1> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="main" class="clearfix "> <div class="fusion-row"> <div id="content"> <div id="post-12286" class="post-12286 page type-page status-publish hentry"> <div class="post-content"> <p><strong>IJOHMN (IInternational Journal online of Humanities)</strong></p> <p><strong>Plagiarism Policy</strong></p> <p><strong>IJOHMN (International Journal online of Humanities )</strong> considers plagiarism as the re-use of someone else’s research work or ideas or words without acknowledging the original author and source. It is important for all IJOHMN authors to recognise that plagiarism in any form, at any level, is not accepted and we will consider it as a breach of educational ethics.</p> <p><strong>What is plagiarism?</strong></p> <ul> <li><em>The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language</em> (4th Ed.) defines plagiarism as “A piece of writing that has been copied from someone else and is presented as being your own work.”</li> <li><em>The American Heritage Dictionary</em> (2nd College Ed.) defines plagiarize as “to take and use as one’s own the writings or ideas of another.”</li> <li>IJOHMN considers plagiarism as the re-use of someone else’s research work or ideas or words without acknowledging the original author and source.<strong>&nbsp;</strong></li> </ul> <p><strong>What Constitutes Plagiarism?</strong></p> <ul> <li>Handing in someone else’s work as your own</li> <li>Putting your name on another person’s research work</li> <li>Copying words and ideas from somewhere else without giving citation</li> <li>Failing to put a quote in quotation marks</li> <li>Giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation</li> <li>Changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving citation<strong>&nbsp;</strong></li> </ul> <p><strong>Policy</strong></p> <ul> <li>IJOHMN (<em>International Journal online of Humanities</em>) will not accept any research paper which will contain plagiarism, and reject and return of papers in review.</li> </ul> <ul> <li><strong><em>Anti-plagiarism declaration</em></strong></li> </ul> <p>By submitting paper for publication in IJOHMN (International Journal online of Humanities</p> <p>Authors (all authors of the article) will certify that;</p> <ul> <li>They are fully aware that plagiarism is illegal &amp; wrong and authors know that plagiarism is the use of another person’s idea or published work and pretend that it is one’s own.</li> <li>They declare that each contribution to their article or project has been acknowledged and source of information from other peoples’ published or unpublished works have been cited referenced.</li> <li>They certifies that they are solely responsible for text of the article and research work included in the article along with any incomplete reference.<strong>&nbsp;</strong></li> </ul> <p><strong>Plagiarism before publication</strong></p> <p>The IJOHMN (International <em>Journal of English</em> Language, Literature in Humanities) will evaluates &nbsp;plagiarism on its own merits. &nbsp;If plagiarism is found &nbsp;even after publication we will&nbsp;delete manuscript from issue.</p> <p><strong>International Journal of English Language Literature in Humanities (“IJOHMN”) a division of Smart Moves</strong><br>1. The Author(s) grant to IJOHMN for the full term of copyright and any extensions thereto, subject to clause 2 below, the exclusive right and irrevocable license</p> <ol start="2"> <li>To translate the Contribution into other languages, create adaptations, summaries or extracts of the Contribution or other derivative works based on the Contribution and exercise all of the rights set forth in (a) above in such translations, adaptations, summaries, extracts and derivative works</li> <li>To edit, adapt, publish, reproduce, distribute, display and store the Contribution in all forms, formats and media whether now known or hereafter developed (including without limitation in print, digital and electronic form) throughout the world.</li> <li>To re-license article metadata without restriction (including but not limited to author name, title, abstract, citation, references, keywords and any additional information, as determined by IJOHMN).</li> <li>Ownership of, copyright remains with the Author(s), and provided that, when reproducing the Contribution or extracts from it or the Supplementary Information (defined below), the Author(s) acknowledge first and reference publication in the Journal, the Author(s) retain only the following non- exclusive rights (a) To reproduce the Contribution in whole or in part, in any printed volume (Book or thesis) of which they are the Author(s);<br>(b) They and any academic institution where they work may reproduce the Contribution for the purpose of course teaching;<br>6. To post a copy of the Contribution as accepted for publication after peer review (in a locked word processing file, or a PDF version there of) on the Author(s)’ own web sites, or institutional repositories, or the Author(s)’ funding body(s)’ archive, six months after publication of the printed or online edition of the Journal, provided that they also link to the Contribution on IJOHMN’s web site; and</li> <li>The Author(s) grant to IJOHMN for the full term of copyright and any extensions thereto the same rights that have been granted in respect of the Contribution as set out in clause 1 above, in and to all supplementary material in any form (including without limitation, images, videos, tables and/ or graphs) submitted by the Author(s) to IJOHMN with or in connection with the Contribution (“Supplementary Information”) but on a non-exclusive basis.</li> <li>The signatory (the Author or the employer) who has signed this Agreement below has full right, power and authority to enter into this Agreement and grant the rights herein on behalf of all of the Authors.</li> <li>Nothing in the Contribution or the Supplementary Information is obscene, defamatory, libelous, violates any right of privacy or publicity, infringes any intellectual property rights (including without limitation copyright, patent, database or trademark rights) or any other human, personal or other rights of any person or entity or is otherwise unlawful; and</li> <li>Nothing in the Contribution or the Supplementary Information infringes any duty of confidentiality which any of the Author(s) may owe to anyone else or violates any contract, express or implied, of any of the Author(s), and all of the institutions in which work recorded in the Contribution or the Supplementary Information was created or carried out, have authorized such publication.</li> <li>The Author(s) authorize IJOHMN to take such steps as it considers necessary, at its own expense in the Author(s) name and on their behalf if IJOHMN believes that a third party is infringing or is likely to infringe copyright in the Contribution and/or Supplementary Information including but not limited to initiating legal proceedings.</li> <li>The Author(s) shall cooperate fully with IJOHMN in relation to any legal action that might arise from the publication of the Contribution and/or Supplementary Information and the Author(s) shall give IJOHMN access at reasonable times to any relevant accounts, documents and records within the power or control of the Author(s).</li> <li>This Agreement shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of Govt of India. The parties irrevocably agree that Bhopal (M.P.) India courts of shall have exclusive jurisdiction to settle any dispute or claim that arises out of or in connection with this Agreement or its subject matter or formation.</li> </ol> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> Washback Effect of EFL Teacher-made Test on Teaching-learning Process of Communicative English Skills Course at Ambo University http://ijohmn.com/index.php/ijohmn/article/view/146 <p>Prompted by the problem the effects of washback, this study was mainly intended to evaluate the washback effect of EFL teacher-made tests/examination on teaching-learning process of Communicative English Skills at Ambo University.&nbsp; Specifically, it examined the influence of the examination on the domains of teaching and learning.&nbsp; It further explored mediating factors of wash back on teachers and students’ practices.&nbsp; To this end, the data were collected from three years (2008, 2009, 2010 E.C.) communicative English skills course teachers’ made examinations through document analysis method.&nbsp; Supplemental data were also collected from EFL teachers and English major students respectively using interview and questionnaire.&nbsp; Both teachers and the students were selected on the bases of randomly sapling techniques.&nbsp; The study employed mixed methods to analyze and interpret the results of the study.&nbsp; The findings of the study reveal that teacher‑made examination affected the domains of teaching-learning process negatively.&nbsp; This means it affects students’ learning attitudes, motivations, and readiness in leaning some components of the materials, and experience in taking examination, practice in using the learning materials and methods in general.&nbsp; Some components of the course, such as writing and listening, were not included in the final examination of the course.&nbsp; As a result, students were influenced to give more time for the work of previous examination questions rather than studying the materials.&nbsp; Based on the findings of the study, teachers are recommended to set examination questions from the contents of the materials they used to teach the components of the course and give equal emphasis for all the components of the language during teaching-learning process and assessment.&nbsp; As the committee members usually set the examinations, the teaching material choice should be amended to align the contents of the examination questions with the contents in the teaching materials.</p> Metages Gebeyehu Alebachew Motuma Hirpassa Minda ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-10 2019-12-10 5 6 29 29 10.24113/ijohmn.v5i6.146 Students' Conceptual Mindfulness about Learning Pronunciation at College Level http://ijohmn.com/index.php/ijohmn/article/view/147 <p>The study highlights students' conceptual mindfulness about learning pronunciation at college level. The objective of the study were; 1) to find out the usefulness of English&nbsp;language pronunciation among college students, 2) to highlight students' problems in the way of learning English pronunciation at college level and 3) to find out the perceptions of students toward English pronunciation competence at college level. It was a descriptive study and questionnaire was used as a research tool. All the college students in the three districts (Okara, Pakpattan &amp; Sahiwal) were included in the population. Fifty college students took from each district through simple random sampling techniques. So, the total sample of the study was 150 college students from three districts. Data was analyzed and find the mean score value for all the statement and then marked the mean score value with Levels of opinion. The results of the study informed us that learning the pronunciation of the 2<sup>nd&nbsp;</sup>language is difficult but not impossible; little concentration, practice and hard work is required to learn pronunciation of English language. It is concluded that four integrated skills; reading, listening, writing and speaking should be used in the teaching learning process for pronunciation and also used the 'listen and repeat' technique should be used.</p> Asma Saman Muhammad Qasim Ali Dr. Najam Ul Kashif ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-10 2019-12-10 5 6 23 23 10.24113/ijohmn.v5i6.147 Female Depression through Symbolism: A Study on the Selected Poems of Adrienne Rich http://ijohmn.com/index.php/ijohmn/article/view/150 <p>This paper talks about Adrienne Rich’s support and standing with the women through her selected poems. The paper discusses the depression of women because of male dominance. Rich uses symbolism to display women depression. She also tries to clear the position of woman in the society. The research demonstrates the position of women through psychoanalysis, social problems and female point of view. This paper also tries to identify Rich’s view on feminism. Adrienne Rich has highlighted the hard reality in her writings. This paper also clarifies Adrienne Rich’s thinking or point view regarding feminism and sexuality. Her experiences regarding the depression of women are displayed here through symbolism. Thus the focal point of the paper is to show how Adrienne Rich shows female depression through symbolism.</p> Md. Jahidul Azad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-10 2019-12-10 5 6 10 10 10.24113/ijohmn.v5i6.150 A Subaltern’s Quest for Identity and Respect: A Gramscian Study of ‘Our Lady of Alice Bhatti’ http://ijohmn.com/index.php/ijohmn/article/view/152 <p>The research paper attempts to probe the resistance of subaltern against the institutionalized oppression of the capitalist society shown in the novel of <em>‘Our Lady of Alice Bhatti’</em> by Mohammad Hanif.&nbsp; The researcher applies the theory of Gramsci to explore the abject condition, suppression and subsequent resistance of subaltern class. This novel gives voice to the oppressed, suppressed and wretched minority of Pakistani society.&nbsp; Alice Bhatti, the protagonist is in many ways a subaltern. She is a Christian in Muslim majority society; she lives in the French colony in the slums of Karachi, she is a woman in the patriarchal society.&nbsp; This novel shows the struggle and resilience of the protagonist. She fought against triple marginalization: She resists against poverty, she resists against patriarchy, she resists against religious fundamentalism, she resists against the bourgeoisie class. Mohammad&nbsp;Hanif produces a subaltern who speaks, who struggles, and who fights against the system.&nbsp; In the end, she is crushed by the ruthless hands of the system. Her death by acid is a cry of a subaltern against inhuman suppression.</p> Mubashar Altaf Qaiser Shahzad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-10 2019-12-10 5 6 10.24113/ijohmn.v5i6.152 A Study of The Lexical and Morpho-Syntactic Errors of Fourah Bay College Students http://ijohmn.com/index.php/ijohmn/article/view/153 <p>This study investigates the lexical and grammatical errors in the English usage of some Fourah Bay College students at the University of Sierra Leone. Selinker’s Inter-language Theory (1972) and Corder’s Error Analysis Approach (1981) were used as a theoretical framework in examining the learners’ errors. Data were collected by giving the learners a written composition to work on. From the subjects’ essays, lexical and grammatical errors were extracted and categorized. The lexical errors were categorized into first language transfer and learning induced. The grammatical errors were divided into first language transfer, over-generalisation of target language rules, ignorance of target language rules, false concepts hypothesised and universal hierarchy of difficulty. Recommendations were also offered in order to minimize the learners’ errors.</p> Dr. Momodu Turay ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-10 2019-12-10 5 6 16 16 10.24113/ijohmn.v5i6.153 A Study of Old English Period (450 AD to 1066 AD) http://ijohmn.com/index.php/ijohmn/article/view/154 <p>In this study, the researcher has talked about Old English or Anglo-Saxons history and literature. He has mentioned that&nbsp;this period contains the formation of an&nbsp;<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_England">English Nation</a> with a lot of the sides that endure today as well as the regional regime of&nbsp;<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shire">shires</a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hundred_(county_division)">hundreds</a>. For the duration of this period,&nbsp;<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christianity">Christianity</a>&nbsp;was proven and there was a peak of literature and language. Law and charters were also proven. The researcher has also mentioned that what&nbsp;literature is written in&nbsp;Anglo-Saxon England and&nbsp;in&nbsp;Old English&nbsp;from the 450 AD to the periods after the Norman Conquest of 1066 AD. He also has argued that from where the composed literature begun of the era with reference to the written and composed literature. The major writers of the age are also discussed with their major works. There is slightly touch of the kings of the time have been given in the study with their great contribution with the era.&nbsp;&nbsp;The researcher also declared that what kinds of literary genres were there in the era.&nbsp;It is the very strong mark that Anglo-Saxon poetic literature has bottomless roots in oral tradition but observance with the ethnic performs we have seen elsewhere in Anglo-Saxon culture, there was an amalgamation amid custom and new knowledge. It has been also declared that from which part literary prose of Anglo-Saxon dates and in what language it was written earlier in the&nbsp;power of Ruler&nbsp;<a href="https://www.encyclopedia.com/people/history/british-and-irish-history-biographies/alfred#1E1Alfred">Alfred</a>&nbsp;(governed 871–99), who operated to give a new lease of life English culture afterwards the overwhelming Danish attacks ended. As barely anybody could read Latin, Alfred translated or had translated the greatest significant Latin manuscripts. There another prominent thing discussed in the study which is the problem of assigning dates to various manuscripts of the era.</p> Muhammad Javed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-10 2019-12-10 5 6 18 18 10.24113/ijohmn.v5i6.154