IJOHMN (International Journal Online of Humanities) http://ijohmn.com/index.php/ijohmn <p>International Journal Online of Humanities (IJOHMN) is bi-monthly, open access, peer-reviewed ( referred ) and indexed journal. published by Smart Moves publications. The main objective of IJOHMN is to provide an online platform for the researchers. The journal had been granted &nbsp;ISSN No <a href="http://nsl.niscair.res.in/ISSNPROCESS/issnassignedinfo.jsp" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2395-5155</a>&nbsp;in the year 2014. IJOHMN&nbsp;first issue was published in December 2014 since then it is continuously publishing quality research papers in the&nbsp;field of humanities. &nbsp;</p> <p>The primary objective of IJOHMN is to offer an intellectual platform for national and international scholars. IJOHMN aims to encourage interdisciplinary studies in humanities.</p> <p>The journal publishes research papers in the fields of humanities such as Communication studies, &nbsp;linguistics, literature etc.</p> <p><strong>PORTICO</strong></p> <p>IJOHMN is preserving open access e-journals with Portico, ensuring that their content will be secure and available into the future. Portico functions as a “dark archive”. PORTICO&nbsp;provides a permanent archive of electronic journals.</p> <h3 align="left"><strong>DOI Crossref</strong></h3> <p><a href="https://search.crossref.org/?q=ijellh" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SMART MOVES JOURNAL IJELLH&nbsp;</a>is a member of the&nbsp;DOI&nbsp;Crossref, USA. Crossref (formerly styled CrossRef) is an official Digital Object Identifier (DOI) Registration Agency of the International DOI Foundation. It is run by the Publishers International Linking Association Inc. (PILA) and was launched in early 2000 as a cooperative effort among publishers to enable persistent cross-publisher citation linking in online academic journals.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Scope for publication:</strong></p> <p>IJELLH further covers various aspects of the research field and most of these are mentioned hereafter:</p> <ol> <li class="show"> <p><strong>English Language</strong>&nbsp;– Grammar, Punctuation, Accent, Comparative Study, ELS (English as a second or foreign language), English language teachers’ training, Language teaching methodologies<strong>,&nbsp;</strong>&amp; other related topics.</p> <p><strong>English Literature</strong>&nbsp;– Prose, Poem, Drama, Fiction from Chaucerian Age to Post Colonial Age, Canadian Literature, Indian Literature &amp; many other topics related to Literature till date.</p> <p><strong>Linguistics</strong> – Linguistics is the scientific study of language. There are three aspects to this study: language form, language, meaning, and language in context. Anthropological Linguistics, Applied Linguistics, Cognitive Science, Computational Linguistics, Discourse Analysis, Forensic Linguistics, General Linguistics, Historical Linguistics, History of Linguistics, Language Acquisition, Language Documentation, Lexicography, Linguistics and Literature, Linguistic Theories, Mathematical Linguistics, Morphology, Neurolinguistics, Philosophy of Language, Phonetics, Phonology, Pragmatics, Psycholinguistics, Semantics, Sociolinguistics, Syntax, Text and Corpus Linguistics, Translating and Interpreting, Typology, Writing Systems.</p> </li> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> SMART MOVES en-US IJOHMN (International Journal Online of Humanities) 2395-5155 <div class="fusion-page-title-bar fusion-page-title-bar-none fusion-page-title-bar-left"> <div class="fusion-page-title-row"> <div class="fusion-page-title-wrapper"> <div class="fusion-page-title-captions"> <p align="justify">International Journal Online of Humanities (IJOHMN) follows the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) License. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition of open access publication.</p> <p align="justify">The Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) License allows users to copy, distribute and transmit an article, adapt the article and make commercial use of the article. The CC BY 4.0) license permits commercial and non-commercial re-use of an open-access article, as long as the author is properly attributed.</p> <div id="deed-conditions" class="row"> <h3>Under the following terms:</h3> <ul class="license-properties col-md-offset-2 col-md-8" dir="ltr"> <li class="license by"> <p><strong>Attribution</strong> — You must give <a id="appropriate_credit_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/#" data-original-title="">appropriate credit</a>, provide a link to the license, and <a id="indicate_changes_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/#" data-original-title="">indicate if changes were made</a>. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.<span id="by-more-container"></span></p> </li> <li class="license nc"> <p><strong>NonCommercial</strong> — You may not use the material for <a id="commercial_purposes_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/#" data-original-title="">commercial purposes</a>.<span id="nc-more-container"></span></p> </li> <li class="license nd"> <p><strong>NoDerivatives</strong> — If you <a id="some_kinds_of_mods_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/#" data-original-title="">remix, transform, or build upon</a> the material, you may not distribute the modified material.<span id="nd-more-container"></span></p> </li> </ul> </div> <div class="row"> <ul id="deed-conditions-no-icons" class="col-md-offset-2 col-md-8"> <li class="license"><strong>No additional restrictions</strong> — You may not apply legal terms or <a id="technological_measures_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/#" data-original-title="">technological measures</a> that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.</li> </ul> </div> <h1 class="entry-title" data-fontsize="18" data-lineheight="25">&nbsp;</h1> </div> </div> </div> </div> Washback Effect of EFL Teacher-Made Test on Teaching-Learning Process of Communicative English Skills Course at Ambo University http://ijohmn.com/index.php/ijohmn/article/view/146 <p>Prompted by the problem the effects of washback, this study was mainly intended to evaluate the washback effect of EFL teacher-made tests/examination on teaching-learning process of Communicative English Skills at Ambo University.&nbsp; Specifically, it examined the influence of the examination on the domains of teaching and learning.&nbsp; It further explored mediating factors of wash back on teachers and students’ practices.&nbsp; To this end, the data were collected from three years (2008, 2009, 2010 E.C.) communicative English skills course teachers’ made examinations through document analysis method.&nbsp; Supplemental data were also collected from EFL teachers and English major students respectively using interview and questionnaire.&nbsp; Both teachers and the students were selected on the bases of randomly sapling techniques.&nbsp; The study employed mixed methods to analyze and interpret the results of the study.&nbsp; The findings of the study reveal that teacher‑made examination affected the domains of teaching-learning process negatively.&nbsp; This means it affects students’ learning attitudes, motivations, and readiness in leaning some components of the materials, and experience in taking examination, practice in using the learning materials and methods in general.&nbsp; Some components of the course, such as writing and listening, were not included in the final examination of the course.&nbsp; As a result, students were influenced to give more time for the work of previous examination questions rather than studying the materials.&nbsp; Based on the findings of the study, teachers are recommended to set examination questions from the contents of the materials they used to teach the components of the course and give equal emphasis for all the components of the language during teaching-learning process and assessment.&nbsp; As the committee members usually set the examinations, the teaching material choice should be amended to align the contents of the examination questions with the contents in the teaching materials.</p> Metages Gebeyehu Alebachew Motuma Hirpassa Minda ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-12-10 2019-12-10 5 6 29 29 10.24113/ijohmn.v5i6.146 Students' Conceptual Mindfulness About Learning Pronunciation at College Level http://ijohmn.com/index.php/ijohmn/article/view/147 <p>The study highlights students' conceptual mindfulness about learning pronunciation at college level. The objective of the study were; 1) to find out the usefulness of English&nbsp;language pronunciation among college students, 2) to highlight students' problems in the way of learning English pronunciation at college level and 3) to find out the perceptions of students toward English pronunciation competence at college level. It was a descriptive study and questionnaire was used as a research tool. All the college students in the three districts (Okara, Pakpattan &amp; Sahiwal) were included in the population. Fifty college students took from each district through simple random sampling techniques. So, the total sample of the study was 150 college students from three districts. Data was analyzed and find the mean score value for all the statement and then marked the mean score value with Levels of opinion. The results of the study informed us that learning the pronunciation of the 2<sup>nd&nbsp;</sup>language is difficult but not impossible; little concentration, practice and hard work is required to learn pronunciation of English language. It is concluded that four integrated skills; reading, listening, writing and speaking should be used in the teaching learning process for pronunciation and also used the 'listen and repeat' technique should be used.</p> Asma Saman Muhammad Qasim Ali Dr. Najam Ul Kashif ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-12-10 2019-12-10 5 6 23 23 10.24113/ijohmn.v5i6.147 Female Depression Through Symbolism: A Study on the Selected Poems of Adrienne Rich http://ijohmn.com/index.php/ijohmn/article/view/150 <p>This paper talks about Adrienne Rich’s support and standing with the women through her selected poems. The paper discusses the depression of women because of male dominance. Rich uses symbolism to display women depression. She also tries to clear the position of woman in the society. The research demonstrates the position of women through psychoanalysis, social problems and female point of view. This paper also tries to identify Rich’s view on feminism. Adrienne Rich has highlighted the hard reality in her writings. This paper also clarifies Adrienne Rich’s thinking or point view regarding feminism and sexuality. Her experiences regarding the depression of women are displayed here through symbolism. Thus the focal point of the paper is to show how Adrienne Rich shows female depression through symbolism.</p> Md. Jahidul Azad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-12-10 2019-12-10 5 6 10 10 10.24113/ijohmn.v5i6.150 A Subaltern’s Quest for Identity and Respect: A Gramscian Study of ‘Our Lady of Alice Bhatti’ http://ijohmn.com/index.php/ijohmn/article/view/152 <p>The research paper attempts to probe the resistance of subaltern against the institutionalized oppression of the capitalist society shown in the novel of <em>‘Our Lady of Alice Bhatti’</em> by Mohammad Hanif.&nbsp; The researcher applies the theory of Gramsci to explore the abject condition, suppression and subsequent resistance of subaltern class. This novel gives voice to the oppressed, suppressed and wretched minority of Pakistani society.&nbsp; Alice Bhatti, the protagonist is in many ways a subaltern. She is a Christian in Muslim majority society; she lives in the French colony in the slums of Karachi, she is a woman in the patriarchal society.&nbsp; This novel shows the struggle and resilience of the protagonist. She fought against triple marginalization: She resists against poverty, she resists against patriarchy, she resists against religious fundamentalism, she resists against the bourgeoisie class. Mohammad&nbsp;Hanif produces a subaltern who speaks, who struggles, and who fights against the system.&nbsp; In the end, she is crushed by the ruthless hands of the system. Her death by acid is a cry of a subaltern against inhuman suppression.</p> Mubashar Altaf Qaiser Shahzad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-12-10 2019-12-10 5 6 10.24113/ijohmn.v5i6.152 A Study of The Lexical and Morpho-Syntactic Errors of Fourah Bay College Students http://ijohmn.com/index.php/ijohmn/article/view/153 <p>This study investigates the lexical and grammatical errors in the English usage of some Fourah Bay College students at the University of Sierra Leone. Selinker’s Inter-language Theory (1972) and Corder’s Error Analysis Approach (1981) were used as a theoretical framework in examining the learners’ errors. Data were collected by giving the learners a written composition to work on. From the subjects’ essays, lexical and grammatical errors were extracted and categorized. The lexical errors were categorized into first language transfer and learning induced. The grammatical errors were divided into first language transfer, over-generalisation of target language rules, ignorance of target language rules, false concepts hypothesised and universal hierarchy of difficulty. Recommendations were also offered in order to minimize the learners’ errors.</p> Dr. Momodu Turay ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-12-10 2019-12-10 5 6 16 16 10.24113/ijohmn.v5i6.153 A Study of Old English Period (450 AD to 1066 AD) http://ijohmn.com/index.php/ijohmn/article/view/154 <p>In this study, the researcher has talked about Old English or Anglo-Saxons history and literature. He has mentioned that&nbsp;this period contains the formation of an&nbsp;<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_England">English Nation</a> with a lot of the sides that endure today as well as the regional regime of&nbsp;<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shire">shires</a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hundred_(county_division)">hundreds</a>. For the duration of this period,&nbsp;<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christianity">Christianity</a>&nbsp;was proven and there was a peak of literature and language. Law and charters were also proven. The researcher has also mentioned that what&nbsp;literature is written in&nbsp;Anglo-Saxon England and&nbsp;in&nbsp;Old English&nbsp;from the 450 AD to the periods after the Norman Conquest of 1066 AD. He also has argued that from where the composed literature begun of the era with reference to the written and composed literature. The major writers of the age are also discussed with their major works. There is slightly touch of the kings of the time have been given in the study with their great contribution with the era.&nbsp;&nbsp;The researcher also declared that what kinds of literary genres were there in the era.&nbsp;It is the very strong mark that Anglo-Saxon poetic literature has bottomless roots in oral tradition but observance with the ethnic performs we have seen elsewhere in Anglo-Saxon culture, there was an amalgamation amid custom and new knowledge. It has been also declared that from which part literary prose of Anglo-Saxon dates and in what language it was written earlier in the&nbsp;power of Ruler&nbsp;<a href="https://www.encyclopedia.com/people/history/british-and-irish-history-biographies/alfred#1E1Alfred">Alfred</a>&nbsp;(governed 871–99), who operated to give a new lease of life English culture afterwards the overwhelming Danish attacks ended. As barely anybody could read Latin, Alfred translated or had translated the greatest significant Latin manuscripts. There another prominent thing discussed in the study which is the problem of assigning dates to various manuscripts of the era.</p> Muhammad Javed ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-12-10 2019-12-10 5 6 18 18 10.24113/ijohmn.v5i6.154 Preparing the Child for Productive Life http://ijohmn.com/index.php/ijohmn/article/view/156 <p>The nature of children’s development is greatly influenced by the environmental conditions in which they are brought up. The amount of social stimulation which they receive is of particular importance, and even if physical conditions are adequate, an unstimulating environment which provides with little opportunity or need to experiment or solve problems will result in low level of achievement. Perhaps the most important aspect of the child’s social development is beyond the reach of the teacher. For the first very important aspect of the child’s development lies in the home. Genetic endowment and cultural level of the family, coupled with the actual physical conditions of the home will have decisive effect on the child’s development and will continue to influence him throughout his school life. These factors are inaccessible to be influenced by the teacher but it is as well for him to have them in mind in his dealings with pupils. In addition, he will need to know how he may most effectively change his pupils along the lives he considers to be the most appropriate. That is, he will seek out the most efficient ways of getting pupils learn for productive life in future.</p> <p>The topic under review will be approached from various fronts which include;</p> <p>The Sociological and Philosophical models; role of the school; Learners’ responsibility; role of the teacher; discipline and learner control; role of the parent; guidance and counseling services and conclusion.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Stella Baindu Fortune ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-27 2019-12-27 5 6 16 16 10.24113/ijohmn.v5i6.156