Contemporary Techniques of English Language Learning in the Age of Global Communication Technologies


  • Hassan Bin Zubair PhD Scholar, English Literature, Department of English. National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan



English, Language, Learning, Motivation, Techniques, Age Groups, Pakistan.


This research explores the importance of motivation and how it plays an important role in language learning. This motivation can vary from person to person, according to the factors which he or she is surrounded by. Some factors can affect motivation intrinsically or some factors can affect in motivation extrinsically in language learning. The aim of this study is to find out the factors behind Pakistani students' motivation to learn English. The researcher has used qualitative multiple case study approach, to study fifteen students in order to get the information by conducting interviews. The fifteen students were from three different age groups, and there are 10 to 12 years, 14 to 16 years and 20 to 25 years old. The findings show how the factors affect students' motivation in language learning. Some of the factors are mandatory subject, students' participation, teachers' feedback, and limited study materials. These factors can be helpful to find out the effective way to motivate the students to learn target language, the teachers' technique and also benefit the involvement of parents in the student's life.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Ahmadi, M. R. (2011). The effect of integrative and instrumental motivation on Iranian EFL learners’ language learning. ELT Voices, 1(2), 7-15

Ahmed, S. (2012). English Language Teaching at Secondary School Level in Pakistan: An Overview of the Implementation of Communicative Language Teaching Method. Journal on English Language Teaching, 2(3), 16-27.

Ali, M. M. (2011). Revisiting English Language Teaching (ELT) Curriculum Design: How Appropriate is Pakistan Higher Secondary Level National ELT Curriculum as a Learner- Centred One?. IIUC Studies, 7, 283-296.

Baugh, A. C., & Cable, T. (1993). A history of the English language. Routledge. Castillo-Montoya, M. (2016). Preparing for interview research: The interview protocol refinement framework. The Qualitative Report, 21(5), 811-831.

Castilo-Montya, M. (2016). Preparing for interview research: The interview protocol refinement framework. The Qualitative Report 25(5), 811-831.

Chowdhury, M. R. (2003). International TESOL training and EFL contexts: The cultural disillusionment factor. Australian Journal of Education, 47(3), 283-302.

Chowdhury, R., & Kabir, A. H. (2014). Language wars: English education policy and practice in Pakistan. Multilingual Education, 4(1), 21.

Creswell, J. W. (2002). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative (pp. 146-166). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Csizér, K., & Kormos, J. (2008). The relationship of intercultural contact and language Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 29(1), 30-48.

Dörnyei, Z. (1990, April). Analysis of motivation components in foreign language learning. In World Congress of Applied Linguistics, Thessaloniki, Greece, April (pp. 15-21).

Dörnyei, Z. (1998). Motivation in second and foreign language learning. Language teaching, 31(3), 117-135.

Dörnyei, Z., & Ushioda, E. (2013). Teaching and researching: Motivation. Routledge.

Dörnyei, Z. (1998). Motivation in second and foreign language learning. Language teaching, 31(3), 117-135.

Dörnyei, Z. (1998). Motivation in second and foreign language learning. Language teaching, 31(3), 117-135.

Gardner, R. C., & Lambert, W. E. (1972). Attitudes and Motivation in Second-Language Learning.

Haider, M. (2012). Extensive Reading in EFL Classroom at Secondary Schools in Pakistan: Current Practices and Future Possibilities. International Education Studies, 5(3), 126133.

Hallgren, K. A. (2012). Computing inter-rater reliability for observational data: an overview and tutorial. Tutorials in quantitative methods for psychology, 8(1), 23.

Hennink, M. M., Kaiser, B. N., &Marconi, V. C. (2017) Code saturation versus meaning saturation: How many interviews are enough?. Qualitative health research, 27 (4), 591- 608.

Hossain, M. (2012). English Syllabus of SSC Level in Pakistan: An Evaluation.

Hossain, M. M. (2016). English language teaching in rural areas: A scenario and problems and prospects in context of Pakistan. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 7(3), 1- 12.

Islam, M. J., & Bari, I. S. (2012). Implementation of CLT in Pakistan and Thailand: Problems and challenges. Outlooks: VUB, 87-105.

Kang, D. H. (2000). Motivation Is Such a Complex Process in the EFL Foreign Language Classroom. (book Google book)

Kormos, J., & Csizér, K. (2008). Age related differences in the motivation of learning English as a foreign language: Attitudes, selves, and motivated learning behavior. Language learning, 58(2), 327-355.

Lucas, R. I., Pulido, D., Miraflores, E., Ignacio, A., Tacay, M., & Lao, J. (2010). A study on the intrinsic motivation factors in second language learning among selected freshman students. Philippine ESL Journal, 4(1), 3-23.

Masum, M. Z. H. J. (2016). Motivation of Pakistani higher secondary students in learning English language. Language in India, 16(2).

Masgoret, A. M., & Gardner, R. C. (2003). Attitudes, motivation, and second language learning: a meta–analysis of studies conducted by Gardner and associates. Language learning, 53(1), 123-163.

Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., Huberman, M. A., & Huberman, M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. sage.

Mirza, G. H., Mahmud, K., & Jabbar, J. (2012). Use of Other Languages in English Language Teaching at Tertiary Level: A Case Study on Pakistan. English Language Teaching, 5(9), 71-77.

Mohanlal, S., Sharada, B. A., Fatihi, A. R., Gusain, L., Bayer, J. M., Ravichandran, S. M., & Thirumalai, S. The Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) at the Higher Secondary Levels in Pakistan: Problems and Prospects from Teachers’ Perspective 14(7), 419- 504.

Morse, J. M., Barrett, M., Mayan, M., Olson, K., & Spiers, J. (2002). Verification strategies for establishing reliability and validity in qualitative research. International journal of qualitative methods, 1(2), 13-22.

Noels, K., Clément, R., & Pelletier, L. (2001). Intrinsic, extrinsic, and integrative orientations of French Canadian learners of English. Canadian Modern Language Review, 57(3), 424- 442.

Noy, C. (2008). Sampling knowledge: The hermeneutics of snowball sampling in qualitative research. International Journal of social research methodology, 11(4), 327-344.

Pandey, S. C., & Patnaik, S. (2014). Establishing reliability and validity in qualitative inquiry: A critical examination. Jharkhand journal of development and management studies, 12(1), 5743-5753.

Sargeant, J. (2012). Qualitative research part II: Participants, analysis, and quality assurance.

Guest, G., Bunce, A., &Johnson, L. (2006). How many interviews are enough? An experiment with data saturation ad variability. Field methods, 18(1), 59-82.

Skinner, E. A., & Belmont, M. J. (1993). Motivation in the classroom: Reciprocal effects of teacher behavior and student engagement across the school year. Journal of educational psychology, 85(4), 571 Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.

Rahman, M., Hamzah, M. I. M., Meerah, T., & Rahman, M. (2010). Historical Development of Secondary Education in Pakistan: Colonial Period to 21st Century. International education studies, 3(1), 114-125.

Rahman, M. S., & Karim, S. M. S. (2015). Problems of CLT in Pakistan: Ways to improve. International Journal of Education Learning and Development, 3(3), 75-87.

Rahman, S. (2005). Orientations and motivation in English language learning: A study of Pakistani students at undergraduate level. Asian EFL Journal, 7(1), 29-55.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary educational psychology, 25(1), 54-67.

Van Teijlingen, E. R., & Hundley, V. (2001). The importance of pilot studies. Wengraf, T. (2001). Interview “facts” as evidence to support inferences to eventual theorization/representation models. Qualitative research interviewing [internet]. Londres: Sage Publications, 2-16.

Wentzel, K. R. (1998). Social relationships and motivation in middle school: The role of parents, teachers, and peers. Journal of educational psychology, 90(2), 202.

Wigfield, A., Eccles, J. S., & Rodriguez, D. (1998). The development of children’s motivation in school contexts. Review of research in education, 23, 73-118.

Williams, M., Burden, R., & Lanvers, U. (2002). ‘French is the language of love and stuff’: Student perceptions of issues related to motivation in learning a foreign language. British educational research journal, 28(4), 503-528.

Williamson, K. (2006). Research in constructivist frameworks using ethnographic techniques. Library trends, 55(1), 83-101.

Zhao, L. (2012). Investigation into Motivation Types and Influences on Motivation: The Case of Chinese Non-English Majors. English Language Teaching, 5(3), 100-122.




How to Cite

Zubair, H. B. (2019). Contemporary Techniques of English Language Learning in the Age of Global Communication Technologies. International Journal Online of Humanities, 5(4), 1–28.