A Subaltern’s Quest for Identity and Respect: A Gramscian Study of ‘Our Lady of Alice Bhatti’


  • Mubashar Altaf Lecturer, Department of English University of Mianwali, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Qaiser Shahzad Research Scholar, MPhil in English Linguistics, Punjab, Pakistan




Subaltern, Patriarchy, Identity, Bourgeoisie Class, Gramscian Analysis.


The research paper attempts to probe the resistance of subaltern against the institutionalized oppression of the capitalist society shown in the novel of 'Our Lady of Alice Bhatti' by Mohammad Hanif.  The researcher applies the theory of Gramsci to explore the abject condition, suppression and subsequent resistance of subaltern class. This novel gives voice to the oppressed, suppressed and wretched minority of Pakistani society.  Alice Bhatti, the protagonist is in many ways a subaltern. She is a Christian in Muslim majority society; she lives in the French colony in the slums of Karachi, she is a woman in the patriarchal society.  This novel shows the struggle and resilience of the protagonist. She fought against triple marginalization: She resists against poverty, she resists against patriarchy, she resists against religious fundamentalism, she resists against the bourgeoisie class. Mohammad Hanif produces a subaltern who speaks, who struggles, and who fights against the system.  In the end, she is crushed by the ruthless hands of the system. Her death by acid is a cry of a subaltern against inhuman suppression.


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How to Cite

Altaf, M., & Shahzad, Q. (2019). A Subaltern’s Quest for Identity and Respect: A Gramscian Study of ‘Our Lady of Alice Bhatti’. International Journal Online of Humanities, 5(6), 62–74. https://doi.org/10.24113/ijohmn.v5i6.152