Washback Effect of EFL Teacher-Made Test on Teaching-Learning Process of Communicative English Skills Course at Ambo University
Keywords:Backwash, Alignment, Content Validity, Reliability, Authenticity
Prompted by the problem the effects of washback, this study was mainly intended to evaluate the washback effect of EFL teacher-made tests/examination on teaching-learning process of Communicative English Skills at Ambo University. Specifically, it examined the influence of the examination on the domains of teaching and learning. It further explored mediating factors of wash back on teachers and students’ practices. To this end, the data were collected from three years (2008, 2009, 2010 E.C.) communicative English skills course teachers’ made examinations through document analysis method. Supplemental data were also collected from EFL teachers and English major students respectively using interview and questionnaire. Both teachers and the students were selected on the bases of randomly sapling techniques. The study employed mixed methods to analyze and interpret the results of the study. The findingsof the study reveal that teacher-made examinationaffected the domains of teaching-learning process negatively. This means it affects students’ learning attitudes, motivations, and readiness in leaning some components of the materials, and experience in taking examination, practice in using the learning materials and methods in general. Some components of the course, such as writing and listening, were not included in the final examination of the course. As a result, students were influenced to give more time for the work of previous examination questions rather than studying the materials. Based on the findings of the study, teachers are recommended to set examination questions from the contents of the materials they used to teach the components of the course and give equal emphasis for all the components of the language during teaching-learning process and assessment. As the committee members usually set the examinations, the teaching material choice should be amended to align the contents of the examination questions with the contents in the teaching materials.
Anderson, C. J. & Bachman F. L. (Ed.). 2006. Assessing Young Language Learners. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ambachew M. D. 2003. A Review of the Ethiopian Related Literature on Reading Ability. University of Pretoria ltd. Pp. 83-93
Bailey, D. (1999). ‘Washback in Language Testing. TOEFL Monograph Series’. Educational testing service. TOEFL Program Office: Educational Testing Service.
Brown, D. 2004. Language Assessment . San Francisco State University : Longman.
Brown, J. D. 2012. Choosing the right type of assessment. In C. Coombe, S. J. Stoynoff, P. Davidson, & B. O’Sullivan (Eds.), The Cambridge guide to language assessment (pp. 133-139). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Burger, M, 2008. The Alignment of Teaching, Learning and Assessment in English language in grade 10 in district 9, Johannesburg (master thesis), University of South Africa
Cheng, L., Watanabe, Y., & Curtis, A. (Eds). (2004). Washback In Language Tteting: Research Contexts and Methods. London: LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOCIATES, Publishers.
Ching, P. 2008. A critical review of five language washback studies from 1995-2007: Methodological considerations. JALT Testing & Evaluation SIG Newsletter. 12 (2), 2-16.
Cohen, L. Manion, L. & Morrison, K. 2007. Research Methods in Education (6th ed.). Oxon: Routledge.
Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research Design (4th ed.). University of Nebraska-Lincon: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Davies, A. (2014). Fifty years of language assessment, In Antony Kunnan (ed.), The Companion to Language Assessment, 11(1) 1-18, John Wiley & Sons Inc, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, Retrieved on 28-Oct-2017 from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.
Djuri?, M. 2008. Dealing with Situations of Positive and Negative Washback. Scripta Manent 4(1) , 14-27.
Green, A. 20007. Washback to learning outcomes: a comparative study of IELTS preparation and university pre-sessional language courses. Assessment in Education, 75-97.
Gumaa, A. 2010. The Impact of Test Content Validity on Language Teaching and Learning. Shaqra University: Shaqra University press.
Hailu, D. 2015. Assessing the content validity of teacher-made test in ELF class: the case of grade 11 at ambo preparatory ( MA thesis). Ambo University: Unpublished.
Hawkey, R. 2006. Impact Theory and Practice. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hughes, A. 2003. Testing for Language Teachers (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Iyer, S. 2015. Impact of Washback in English as Second Language Classrooms – An Investigation. ELT Voices- International Journal for Teachers of English Volume (5), Issue (3), 88-91.
Khan, I. S. 2013. Examination Washback Over Learning And Teaching. Journal of Education and Practice, 4-5.
Kothari. 2004. Research Methodology (2nd ed.). University of Rajasthan (India): New Age International Publisher .
Kumar, R. 2011. Research Methodogy (3rd ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE Publications.
Madsen, H. S. 1983. Techniques In Testing. Oxford University: Oxford University Press.
Messick, S. 1996. Validity and Washback in Language Testing. Research Report, 4-8.
Motuma, H. 2017. Alignmet of Primery school complition examinition with the textbook:2006-2009 infocuse. Unpublished.
Motuma, H. 2015.The Changing Role of the University TEFL Teacher in Improving the Students Communicative English Skill: From Passive Technician to Reflective Practitioner; Journal of Science and Sustainable Development (JSSD), 2015, 3(1), 133-155.
Motuma, H. 2014. An assessment of the Students’ Reading Ability in Higher Institutions: The Case of Asela College of Teacher Education.Journal of Science and Sustainable Development (JSSD), (1). 2. Pp.76-95.
Newfield, T. 2005. ‘TOEIC Washback on Teachers. A Pilot Study at One University, 83-106.
Nugussie, T. 2002. Content Validity of the Ethiopian General Secondary Education Certificate English Examination (EGSECEE). MA thesis .
Pan, Y. 2009. Do Tests Always Work?”. The International Journal of Educational and psychological assessment.
Sadeghi, S. 2014. High-stake Test Preparation Courses: Washback in Accountability Contexts. Journal of Education & Human Development Vol. 3, No. 1, 17-26.
Shih, C. 2007. The Canadian Modern Language Review. A New Washback Model of Students' Learning’. The Canadian Modern, 135-161.
Shannon-Baker, P. (2016). Making Paradigms Meaningful in Mixed Methods Research Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 10(4) 319–334.
Simachew, G. 2012. Washback of the University Entrance English Exam (UEEE) on Teachers’ and Students’ Practices: The Case of Preparatory Schools in Amhara National Regional State. PHD Desertation, 34-40.
Spratt, M. 2005. The implications for teaching and learning of studies of washback from exams. Washback and the classroom, 5- 29.
Sukyadi, D. & Mardiani, R. (2011). The Washback Effect of the English National Examination (ENE) on English Teachers’ Classroom Teaching and Students’ Learning. VOLUME 13, 96-111.
Taylor, L. 2005. Washback and impact. key concepts in elt, 154 .
Thaidan, R. 2015. Washback in language testing. Washback in Language Testing. Education Journal, 7.
Wall, D. 2000. The impact of high-stakes testing on teaching and learning: can this be predicted or controlled? System, 28, 499-509.
Weir, C. J. 2005. Language Testing and Validation. Palgrave Macmillan: Main’s Press,.
Yasin, H. 2014. Washbach effet of grade ten national examination on teachrs teaching practice (Master’s thesis). Haromaya : Haromaya university.
Zucker, S. 2005. Horizontal and Vertical Alignment. Policy report, 2.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2019 Metages Gebeyehu Alebachew, Motuma Hirpassa Minda
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
You are free to:
- Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format
- Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material
- for any purpose, even commercially.
Under the following terms:
- No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.